Often, all you need to do to access services like loans and credit on digital platforms in Indonesia is upload a photo of your national ID card, along with a photo of yourself holding the card close to your face. The platform then checks whether the ID card number exists in the government database, and takes a call on whether the face in the selfie matches the one on the ID card.

The process is easy, quick, and therefore common on platforms that want to onboard new customers in a hurry. It is also easy to game.

Reports of entire villages being duped duped The Ken Default, fraud turn Indonesia’s digital lenders into unlikely collaborators Read more by identity thieves are common, with scammers using these datasets to open accounts online and take out loans in the victims’ names.