It’s a curious situation, but even as 2019 winds down to its eventual close, India is missing a few critical elements whose absence is inexplicable.

For a country that boasts a $16 billion-plus e-commerce unicorn like Flipkart, there still isn’t an e-commerce policy.

While there has already been talk of a potential 5G spectrum auction and potentially barring companies from spectrum trials, there’s still uncertainty about which spectrum band will be used.

And, perhaps most disconcertingly, Indians still have little protection against the non-consensual collection of personal data or even the misuse of consensually provided data.