In a cafe inside a suburban Mumbai hospital, a man dressed like a doctor is on the verge of cursing like a sailor.

There’s no white laboratory coat, but the stethoscope around Ajit Gajendragadkar’s neck gives away his ‘Dr’ prefix. The bespectacled paediatrician in a crisp, grey khadi shirt and black trousers alternates between animated gestures and folded arms while talking about his reviled topic of choice: the anti-vaccination (or anti-vax) movement.

Modern anti-vax sentiments can be traced to the late 19th century, when the Anti-Vaccination Society of America opposed compulsory smallpox inoculation until the 1910s.