Five years ago, India’s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) made big promises with regard to health. Specifically, it promised a reduction in out-of-pocket spending.

Very few of these promises actually came to fruition, though. For instance, a pharmaceutical policy and a policy to curb Chinese imports from dominating the bulk drugs market were announced, but never actually enacted. The latter is especially interesting because in 2017, as The Ken reported, Indian pharma’s dependence on Chinese bulk drugs was flagged as a security concern by no less than the Prime Minister’s Office.